Over 50% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) will progress and/or develop metastases. Biomarkers capable of predicting progression, risk stratification and therapeutic benefit are needed. Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, dissemination and treatment failure. Therefore, we hypothesized that CRC stem cell markers (CRCSC) can identify a group of patients whom are at increased risk for recurrence or progression of disease. If proven correct, these CRCSC biomarkers may herald a paradigm shift in the treatment of this deadly disease. This manuscript reviews current CRC evidence based screening modalities, patient stratification, and summarizes the current state of biomarkers and discusses the novel concept of putative CRCSC’s as prognostic biomarkers.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies and its expression strongly also affects the outcomes of cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of EGFR in breast cancer (BC) patients. A total of 96 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of BC were enrolled into this study. Serum EGFR levels were determined by the solid-phase sandwich ELISA method. Age and sex matched 30 healthy controls were included in the analysis. Median age of diagnosis was 48 years old (range: 29–80). Thirty-seven (39%) consisted of metastatic disease. The baseline serum EGFR levels were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p < 0.001). The serum EGFR concentrations were also significantly higher only in patients with ER-negative and triple-negative tumor (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). The other known clinical variables, including grade of histology, stage of disease, serum CA 15.3 levels, and response to chemotherapy were not found to be correlated with serum EGFR concentrations (p > 0.05). Likewise, serum EGFR levels were found to play no prognostic role for survival (p = 0.35). In conclusion, while serum EGFR levels were elevated in BC patients, EGFR level has no predictive and prognostic value in these patients.
Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm in women and has the highest associated mortality rate. Rapid detection programmes can provide early diagnosis and increase the chances of survival. There are no specific tumor biomarkers for the early phase of the disease. The primary aim of this study was to search a blood biomarker with levels that exceeded the normal range established in the general population that could be used to screen breast cancer.Case–control study. Conventional as well as research (NGAL, EGFR and 8-OHdG) tumor biomarkers were analyzed.
Breast tissue expression of the ERBB protooncogene family has been extensively studied. It was recently shown that expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; c-erbB-1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 (c-erbB-2) can be detected in the serum of breast cancer patients. The clinical relevance of this has not been fully established.EGFR and HER2 immunoassays were conducted in blood from 57 patients in whom paired serum samples were available (from the times of primary and metastatic diagnoses), from 96 primary breast cancer patients and from 49 normal individuals. Of the 57 patients with paired serum samples, paired tissue samples for HER2 expression were available for eight.