Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer disease. We investigated their levels and utility in comparison to cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 in patients with breast cancer (BC) and in relation to the control groups. The study included 100 women with BC, 50 patients with benign breast tumor, and 50 healthy women. The plasma levels of the tested parameters were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while CA 15-3 with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The results demonstrated significant differences in the concentration of the tested parameters and CA 15-3 between groups of patients with BC and healthy patients or patients with benign breast tumor. The plasma levels of VEGF and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were significantly higher in advanced tumor stages. The tested parameters were comparable to CA 15-3 values of the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, the predictive values of positive and negative test results, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The combined use of the tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in the increase in sensitivity, negative predictive value, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, especially in the combination of VEGF with tumor marker (84%, 73%, 0.888, respectively). These findings suggest the usefulness of the tested parameters in the diagnosis of BC. VEGF, especially in combination with CA 15-3, showed the highest usefulness in the diagnosis of early BC.
Macrophage colonystimulating factor (MCSF), matrix metalloproteinase9 (MMP9), and its specific tissue inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases1 (TIMP1) may play an important role in the pathogenesis and spread of cancer. We investigated the plasma levels of MCSF, MMP9, and TIMP1 in comparison with a commonly accepted tumor marker CA 153 in breast cancer patients and in control groups. The cohort included 110 breast cancer patients in groups at stages IIV. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers and 50 benign tumor patients. Plasma levels of MCSF, MMP9, and TIMP1 were determined by using ELISA, while CA 153 concentrations were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA).