Tumor Markers in clinical oncology

Tumor Markers in clinical oncology

False positive results
  • Presence of inflammatory processes
  • Benign liver diseases and consequential disturbancies in metabolism and excretion (AFP, CA 15.3, CA 19.9, CEA, TPA)
  • Disturbancies of renal function (beta-2-microglobulin, calcitonin, CA 15.3, CA 19.9, CEA, PSA)
  • Extensive tumor necrosis
  • As a consequence of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (digitorectal examination - PSA, mamography, surgery, radio and chemotherapy)
  • As a consequence of different physiological conditions (pregnancy - hCG, CA 125, CA 15.3, MCA, AFP, menstrual cycle - CA 125)
False negative results
  • Complete absence of production (e.g. CA 19.9 in Le(a-b-) persons)
  • Insufficient expression of a certain antigenic determinant (or production in only some of tumor cells)
  • Insufficient blood circulation in the tumor
  • Production of immune complexes with autoantibodies
Original Paper